Background:Thymomas are a group of rare neoplasms of the anterior mediastinum.The objective of this study was to describe the demographics, clinical characteristicsand treatment approaches in Latin America.Methods:This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study including patients withhistologically proven thymomas diagnosed between 1997 and 2018. Demographics, c
linicopathological characteristics and therapeutic outcomes were collected locally and analyzed in a centralized manner.
Results: A total of 135 patients were included. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years old (19–84), 53.3% (n = 72) of patients were female and 87.4% had an ECOG perfor- mance score ranging from 0–1. A total of 47 patients (34.8%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Concurrent myasthenia gravis occurred in 21.5% of patients. Surgery was performed in 74 patients (54.8%), comprising 27 (20%) tumorectomies and 47 (34.8%) thymectomies. According to the Masaoka-Koga system, overall survival (OS) at five-years was 73.4%, 63.8% and 51%, at stages I–II, III–IVA and IVB, respectively (p = 0.005). Furthermore, patients with low lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (à373 IU/L) at baseline and myasthenia gravis concurrence showed signifi- cantly better OS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high LDH levels (HR 2.8 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–7.8]; p = 0.036) at baseline and not performing a surgical resection (HR 4.1 [95% CI: 1.3–12.7]; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with increased risk of death.
Conclusions: Our data provides the largest insight into the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with thymomas in Latin America. Survival in patients with thymomas continues to be very favorable, especially when subjected to adequate local control.